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新技术 | 美国固态制冷技术取得突破!

楼主:新材料参考 时间:2021-10-12 14:42:35

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15 MAY 2018 

USA: Scientists at the US Caloric Materials Consortium, CaloriCool, claim to be closer to producing a caloric refrigeration system that is markedly more efficient than current gas compression systems.

美国:美国研究固体制冷材料集团,CaloriCool公司声称将生产一种固体制冷剂,该制冷系统比现在的卡诺原理系统效率显著提高。

It is estimated that residential and commercial cooling currently consumes about 20% of electricity generated in the US. CaloriCool claimss that caloric refrigeration system could save as much as 30% in energy usage.

据估计,目前家用和商用制冷消耗了美国20%的能源。CaloriCool 公司声称固体制冷系统可以节省30%的能源消耗。

Consortium members have filed a pair of provisional patent applications on two caloric materials, which are compounds that generate strong cooling effects when acted upon by magnetic, electric, or mechanical forces. One of the materials has a magnetocaloric effect 50% better than any material of this class known before. The second patentable discovery corrects a flaw in an already known material, which was formerly thought to be too brittle to use outside of the laboratory setting.

这个合伙公司的成员已经申请了两种热材料的临时专利申请,该材料在磁、电和机械作用力下具有强制冷效果。其中一个磁制冷效率是50%,优于该类型之前的材料。第二个专利对已知的一个材料进行了完善,之前认为在非实验室条件下该材料太脆而不能用。

“Both of these materials are composed of common elements, which means they will be reasonably inexpensive to make in mass production,” said CaloriCool director Vitalij Pecharsky, an Ames Laboratory scientist. “It’s an important hurdle to overcome for adoption of this technology into appliances and HVAC systems.”

“这两种材料都由普通元素构成,意味着可以低成本的大规模生产“CaloriCool 公司经理,Ames实验室科学家Vitalij Pecharsky说。“这使得该技术突破了在暖通空调业应用的重大障碍”

CaloriCool’s ultimate goal is to transfer the solid-state cooling system technology into the marketplace for use in commercially available refrigeration appliances and systems.

CaloriCool公司的终极目标是将这种固态制冷系统技术商业化。

Established as part of the Energy Materials Network, CaloriCool is sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy through its Advanced Manufacturing Office, and led by the Ames Laboratory at Iowa State University.

作为“能源材料网络的一部分,CaloriCool 由美国能源部的能源效率和清洁能源办公室通过先进制造资助,由埃姆斯实验室和爱荷华州大学负责。

===F叫兽点评===

固态制冷技术使用固态材料具有的制冷效应来替代蒸气压缩循环中气态工质的蒸发吸热制冷效应,由于不再对大气排放具有ODP和GWP的工质,对环境更加友好,在过去十余年间已经得到了快速发展。

 常见的固态制冷技术有:

  (1)热电制冷(Thermoelectric):两种不同金属/半导体的帕尔贴制冷效应

  (2)磁热制冷Magnetocaloric:磁热合金的绝热去磁制冷效应

  (3)电卡制冷Electrocaloric:电卡材料的电卡效应制冷

  (4)弹热制冷Elastocaloric:记忆合金的的马氏体相变制冷效应

在这些技术中,热电制冷和磁热制冷已经商业化,由于其低噪声、结构简单、高便携性等突出特点,已经有了车载冰箱、小型空调、酒柜等实际产品,拥有一定的市场份额。

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